Petra Popovics, PhD
Dr. Popovics is an assistant scientist in the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Department of Urology, School of Medicine and Public Health. Her mentors are Drs. Will Ricke and Chad Vezina.
Dr. Popovics`s research focuses on identifying the role of osteopontin in prostatic inflammation and fibrosis. Approximately one in every four men aged 50 or above develop lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) that significantly affects the quality of life of these patients and represents an economic burden on the US health care system. LUTS have long been thought to be primarily instigated by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), however, associated symptoms may also develop in the absence of significant prostatic enlargement. There is increasing evidence showing that chronic prostatic inflammation and periurethral fibrosis contributes to the development of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) but current therapeutic efforts do not target these pathologies.
Dr. Popovics has recently identified osteopontin (OPN) as an important cytokine contributing to inflammation in the prostate. OPN is implicated in various fibrotic diseases: OPN delays the resolution of thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in mice partly due to its stimulatory action on collagen-I deposition. In wound fibrosis, OPN is induced by fibrocytes and local oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated suppression of OPN reduces scaring and shortens healing time. Dr. Popovics`s recent study found that OPN expression was highly elevated in a rat model of inflammation-induced stromal expansion and prostatic fibrosis and in human prostatic hyperplasia that recognized OPN as a valuable molecular target for prostatic fibrosis.
Dr. Popovics`s current research focuses on identifying which cell type is the source of prostatic OPN during the progression of LUTD, which molecular pathways initiate osteopontin expression and secretion and what genes are activated in response to OPN. Using in vitro 3D cell cultures and animal models of prostatic inflammation and LUTD, she will explore whether genetic and pharmacological manipulation of osteopontin action attenuates inflammatory and fibrotic signals, improves physiological measures of urinary function and whether this can be utilized in the clinical therapy of LUTS. View Dr. Popovics’s CV.
Heidi Wendell Brown, MD, MAS
Dr. Heidi Brown is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology in the School of Medicine and Public Health. Her mentor is Jane Mahoney, MD, Professor in the Department of Medicine. Dr. Brown’s research focuses on a critically important and under-addressed mature health need: incontinence. More than 60% of community-dwelling older U.S. women experience urinary and/or bowel incontinence, the combined annual cost of which exceeds $30 billion. In addition to their significant negative impact on quality of life, urinary and bowel incontinence increase the risk of falls, depression, caregiver burnout, hospitalization, and nursing home placement. Fortunately, effective treatments exist to improve or cure these conditions, even without medication or surgery. Unfortunately, over half of women with urinary incontinence and almost three-fourths of women with bowel incontinence do not seek care, and therefore cannot access these treatments.
Dr. Brown’s research focuses on barriers to care-seeking for incontinence as well as application of health education and chronic disease self-management principles to both urinary and bowel incontinence, to identify effective methods to improve symptoms and increase awareness of treatment options. Her program is based on a community-based continence promotion program proven to improve symptoms and increase care-seeking for urinary incontinence in Canadian and United Kingdom (UK) populations. She is using her K12 award to adapt this evidence-based intervention for the seniors in our community, adding information and management strategies for bowel incontinence, as well as incorporating components of other successful health promotion interventions in our community. Once this community-based education and self-management program is demonstrated to be effective in Wisconsin, it will be more widely disseminated to target the epidemic of incontinence throughout the United States. View Dr. Brown’s CV.
Teresa Te-Ying Liu, PhD
Dr. Liu is an assistant scientist in the School of Veterinary Medicine, and her mentor is Will Ricke, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Urology, School of Medicine and Public Health. Dr. Liu’s research focuses on the role of estrogen receptors on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) development and progression. BPH affects a high percentage of aging men, and disease progression has been associated with inflammation, proliferation, and altered steroid homeostasis. While the prostate is generally thought of as an androgen dependent organ, the altered steroid hormone milieu associated with aging could increase signaling of estrogen receptors. However, the role of estrogens and estrogen receptor activity is not well described in the prostate.
A change in the steroid hormone milieu in the prostate is often associated with BPHdevelopment; we are specifically interested in the protective effects of estrogen receptor β. We are currently using high-throughput sequencing technologies to define estrogen receptor gene networks in BPH. In combination with receptor dimerization studies, these data will be a valuable resource for the benign prostate research community. Additionally, these gene networks could reveal potential biomarkers or druggable targets that could provide novel combination therapy for BPH. View Dr. Liu’s CV.
Alejandro Roldán-Alzate, PhD
Dr. Roldán is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Radiology, School of Medicine and Public Health, and Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering. His mentors are Will Ricke and Wade Bushman. Dr. Roldán has particular expertise in measurement of flow and determination of fluid dynamics by non-invasive imaging, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He research will rely on application of this expertise in conjunction with developing technology in MRI to better characterize the size, conformation, and mechanical properties of the prostate, as well as the relationship of these characteristics to urine flow.
Imaging of the prostate to assess the size, conformation, and consistency of the prostate in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) remains confusing. Studies seeking to correlate prostate size determined by non-invasive imaging with lower urinary tract symptoms have produced conflicting, inconsistent results. A major reason for this is that very little attention has been paid to the capacity of imaging – particularly magnetic resonance imaging or MRI – to assess the mechanical properties of the prostate. Using mouse models and patients with BPH, Dr. Roldán will test the following hypothesis: benign disease of the prostate results in decreased elasticity and compliance of the prostate and urethra that is accompanied by increased severity of lower urinary tract disease. MRI has been used extensively to characterize size and mechanical properties of the liver. The accuracy of MRI for this purpose has been confirmed by biopsy, surgery, and autopsy findings. Technology increasing the versatility and accuracy of MRI for assessing mechanical properties of solid organs is rapidly developing, but use of this technology to assess benign prostatic disease lags behind. The long term goal of this research is to use MRI to provide clinicians with more specific, accurate data regarding structural properties of the prostate. These data will guide choices of therapy and improve overall outcome of treatment of BPH.